óCoffeeScript Cookbook

Shuffling Array Elements


You want to shuffle the elements in an array.


The Fisher-Yates shuffle is a highly efficient and completely unbiased way to randomize the elements in an array. It's a fairly simple method: Start at the end of the list, and swap the last element with a random element from earlier in the list. Go down one and repeat, until you're at the beginning of the list, with all of the shuffled elements at the end of the list. This Fisher-Yates shuffle Visualization may help you understand the algorithm.

shuffle = (source) ->
  # Arrays with < 2 elements do not shuffle well. Instead make it a noop.
  return source unless source.length >= 2
  # From the end of the list to the beginning, pick element `index`.
  for index in [source.length-1..1]
    # Choose random element `randomIndex` to the front of `index` to swap with.
    randomIndex = Math.floor Math.random() * (index + 1)
    # Swap `randomIndex` with `index`, using destructured assignment
    [source[index], source[randomIndex]] = [source[randomIndex], source[index]]

# => [ 3, 1, 5, 6, 4, 8, 2, 9, 7 ]


The Wrong Way to do it

There is a common--but terribly wrong way--to shuffle an array, by sorting by a random number.

shuffle = (a) -> a.sort -> 0.5 - Math.random()

If you do a sort randomly, it should give you a random order, right? Even Microsoft used this random-sort algorithm. Turns out, this random-sort algorithm produces biased results, because it only has the illusion of shuffling. Randomly sorting will not result in a neat, tidy shuffle; it will result in a wild mass of inconsistent sorting.

Optimizing for speed and space

The solution above isn't as fast, or as lean, as it can be. The list comprehension, when transformed into Javascript, is far more complex than it needs to be, and the destructured assignment is far slower than dealing with bare variables. The following code is less idiomatic, and takes up more source-code space... but will compile down smaller and run a bit faster:

shuffle = (a) ->
  i = a.length
  while --i > 0
    j = ~~(Math.random() * (i + 1)) # ~~ is a common optimization for Math.floor
    t = a[j]
    a[j] = a[i]
    a[i] = t

Extending Javascript to include this shuffle.

The following code adds the shuffle function to the Array prototype, which means that you are able to run it on any array you wish, in a much more direct manner.

Array::shuffle ?= ->
  if @length > 1 then for i in [@length-1..1]
    j = Math.floor Math.random() * (i + 1)
    [@[i], @[j]] = [@[j], @[i]]

# => [ 3, 1, 5, 6, 4, 8, 2, 9, 7 ]

Note: Although it's quite common in languages like Ruby, extending native objects is often considered bad practice in JavaScript (see: Maintainable JavaScript: Don’t modify objects you don’t own; Extending built-in native objects. Evil or not?). That being said, the code above is really quite safe to add. It only adds Array::shuffle if it doesn't exist already, thanks to the existential assignment operator (?=). That way, we don't overwrite someone else's, or a native browser method.

Also, if you think you'll be using a lot of these utility functions, consider using a utility library, like Lo-dash^†. They include a lot of nifty features, like maps and forEach, in a cross-browser, lean, high-performance way.

^† Underscore is also a good alternative to Lo-dash.