Generating Predictable Random Numbers
You need to generate a random number in a certain range, but you also need to be able to "seed" the generator to deliver predictable values.
Write your own random number generator. There are a LOT of ways to do this. Here's a simple one. This generator is +ABSOLUTELY NOT+ acceptable for cryptographic purposes!
A brief explanation of this random number generator is in order, however. It is a Linear Congruential Pseudorandom Number Generator. LCPRNG's operate on the mathematical formula
I<sub>j+1</sub> = (aI<sub>j</sub>+c) % m, where a is the multiplier, c is the addition offset, and m is the modulus.
Each time a random number is requested, a very large multiplication and addition are performed -- "very large" relative to the key space -- and the resulting number is modulused back down into the keyspace.
This generator has a period of 232. It is absolutely unacceptable for cryptographic purposes, but for most simple randomness requirements it is quite adequate.
randn() will traverse the entire keyspace before repeating itself, and the next number is determined by the previous one.
If you want to tinker with this generator, you are strongly encouraged to read Chapter 3 of Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming. Random number generation is VERY easy to screw up, and Knuth explains how to tell a good RNG from a bad one.
Avoid the temptation to modulus the output of this generator. If you need an integer range, use division. Linear Congruential generators are very nonrandom in their lower bits. This one in particular always generates an odd number from an even seed, and vice versa. So if you need a random 0 or 1, do NOT use
because you will most definitely not get random digits. Use